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Coffee is a brewed beverage with a distinct aroma and flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the Coffea plant. The beans are found in coffee "cherries", which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Africa. Green unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Coffee is slightly acidic (5.0-5.1 pH) and can have a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. It is one of the most-consumed beverages in the world.
Coffee berries, which contain the coffee seeds or "beans", are produced by
several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the "robusta" form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.
An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004, and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Consequently, organic coffee is an expanding market.
Many studies have examined the health effects of coffee, and whether the overall effects of coffee consumption are positive or negative has been widely
disputed. The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important in relation to its effects on health. For instance, preparing coffee in a French
press leaves more oils in the drink compared with coffee prepared with a paper coffee filter. This might raise the drinker's level of "bad cholesterol."